Leonard Kraditor (Joaquin Phoenix) does not on the face of it seem like the kind of man who would end up with two attractive lovers at the same time. He is in his mid-thirties and lives with his parents. He works as a delivery man for his father’s antiquated dry cleaning business. He takes black and white photographs as a hobby, but shoots only buildings. He takes medication for a variety of bipolar disorder. And in the opening scene of the film, he attempts to commit suicide (not for the first time, his worried parents remind themselves) by jumping off a pier.
A moment of great rejoicing for human rights activists and champions of the rule of law came at the beginning of this month as former Peruvian president Alberto Fujimori was sentenced to 25 years in jail for “crimes against humanity”, having authorized murders, kidnappings, and torture as part of a severe anti-terrorist campaign in the 1990s. Fujimori’s sentencing, one must hope, will send a powerful message to government leaders around the world that maintaining public security is an insufficient excuse for violating fundamental human rights, and that even presidents will be held to account for the crimes they commit in office.
But not in America.
As in high school, so in the international arena, there are over-achievers and under-achievers. Stephen Walt draws ups a list draws up a list of countries that punch above their weight (Canada, Sweden, North Korea, Israel, Singapore) as well as global slackers (Japan, Germany, Russia, India, Brazil). Walt has some interesting speculations as to why some countries are small in size but cast huge shadows while others look at first glace like elephants but actually squeek like mice.
Commentary has an interesting essay on international efforts to prevent genocide in Darfur and elsewhere. The author, Tod Lindberg, does a persuasive job rebutting many of the conservative arguments against genocide prevention. It is refreshing to see a conservative endorse the concept of responsibility to protect (R2P). As Lindberg notes, to date the idea has “mainly been the province of liberal internationalists and human-rights groups on the Left.” However, there are some leftists who have made the mistake of thinking that because the Iraq War was misguided, military intervention as such is always wrong. Such observers often view genocide prevention through the prism of colonialism. This approach has the sad outcome, intentional or not, of giving a do-nothing approach to genocide a progressive sheen. Here’s hoping a left-wing Lindberg emerges to rebut this view also.
J.G. Ballard’s most famous novel: another happy tale?
The late J.G. Ballard had a reputation as a glum and depressingwriter, obsessed with apocalypse and disaster. And it’s true that the subjects of his books — car crashes, life in a Japanese internment camp during World War II, world-destroying catastrophes — are rather on the sober side.
But Ballard saw himself as something different, as a writer of happiness. As Ballard told Charles Platt in 1979 interview (available in Platt’s book Dream Makers):
Most of my fiction, whatever its settings may be, is not pessimistic. It’s a fiction of psychological fulfillment. Most people think that I write a fiction of unhappy endings, but it’s not true. The hero of The Drowned World, who goes south toward the sun and self-oblivion, is choosing a sensible course of action that will result in absolute psychological fulfillment for himself. In a sense — he has — sort of — hit the jackpot! He has; he’s won the psychological sweepstakes. I mean, the book makes no sense, and the hero’s behaviour is meaningless, if you don’t see it that way. It’s the same thing in Crash [his traumatic novel of perversion, violence, and the automobile]. The whole dynamic of that book, I suppose, leads toward the ultimate car crash, which we all celebrate; something like that. All my fiction describes the merging of the self in the ultimate metaphor, the ultimate image, and that’s psychologically fulfilling. It seems to me to be the only recipe for happiness we know.
It’s a fairly wide-ranging discussion, not just about our book but really about the state of comics. Among other topics touched on:
1. How reading Marxist cultural critic C.L.R. James influenced Kent’s comic criticism.